dubbing


dubbing
   The compulsory dubbing of foreign films into Spanish was introduced in 1941, and provided the censorship apparatus of the Franco regime with an additional means of controlling the content of films by manipulating the dialogue. References to the Civil War were excised from the soundtrack of Casablanca (1942), and in other films, lovers were converted into spouses, and passionate declarations into lofty spiritual reflections.
   There was also an economic aspect to dubbing, for the removal of the linguistic barrier made it difficult for the Spanish film industry to compete against foreign productions. In 1943, the state introduced incentives for Spanish producers, in the form of licences to import and dub foreign films. Spanish distributors and those involved in dubbing were also protected by the automatic banning of any foreign film dubbed into Spanish prior to importation. The granting of dubbing permits, however, had the unexpected side-effect of creating a lucrative black market in resold licences, resulting in the drafting of new protectionist measures in 1952.
   By the early 1960s, however, the opening up of the economy to international trade, and the development of tourism, produced a slight relaxation in the restrictions on foreign-language films, and some films were being shown in major cities in their original versions. This did not, however, prevent references to the economic importance of the tourist industry being cut from the Spanish soundtrack of Jaime Camino's España otra vez (Spain Again) (1967). In 1966, Francesco Rosi, the Italian director of an Italo-Spanish coproduction, El momento de la verdad (The Moment of Truth) (1965), publicly dissociated himself from the film, because the original Spanish soundtrack had been changed without consultation. Nor were sound-tracks in other languages immune from interference, as was shown in the case of Bernardo Bertolucci's Prima della rivoluzione (Before the Revolution) (1964), where a phrase in the Italian dialogue referring to Franco, which would not have been understood by a significant proportion of the audience, was cut. Furthermore, translations of parts of the soundtrack in the subtitles were either omitted or distorted. Even as late as the beginning of the 1970s, the habit of providing a "correct" interpretation of the ending by means of a voice-over commentary had not disappeared, as occurred with Sam Peckinpah's The Getaway, where it is made clear that the fugitive bandits received their just deserts. Though censorship lapsed after the death of Franco, the charging of fees to importers and distributors of foreign films continued to provide much-needed income to support subsidies to the Spanish film industry, though these were less necessary as the industry recovered in the late 1990s.
   See also: cinema law; film and cinema; Francoist culture; Salamanca Conversations
   Further reading
   - Gubern, R. (1981) La censura: función política y ordenamiento jurídico bajo el franquismo (1936-1975), Barcelona: Ediciones Península (the most thorough study of the legal framework of censorship and its practical operation).
   - Hooper, J. (1995) The New Spaniards, Harmondsworth: Penguin (chapter 23 offers an excellent overview of the cultural politics of Francoism).
   EAMONN RODGERS

Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture. 2013.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Dubbing —    Dubbing foreign films was introduced in Spain in 1932, and was carried out for years largely at Trilla La Riva, a Barcelona company. It was in the Catalan capital that the practice flourished in the prewar years. The practice of shooting… …   Guide to cinema

  • Dubbing —    Dubbing foreign films was introduced in Spain in 1932, and was carried out for years largely at Trilla La Riva, a Barcelona company. It was in the Catalan capital that the practice flourished in the prewar years. The practice of shooting… …   Historical dictionary of Spanish cinema

  • Dubbing — Dub bing, n. 1. The act of dubbing, as a knight, etc. [1913 Webster] 2. The act of rubbing, smoothing, or dressing; a dressing off smooth with an adz. [1913 Webster] 3. A dressing of flour and water used by weavers; a mixture of oil and tallow… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • dubbing — ● dubbing nom masculin (anglais dubbing, dégras) Manière de fixer, sur la soie poissée d une ligne de pêche, des poils d animaux destinés à imiter le corps des insectes artificiels …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • dubbing — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 7}}[wym. dabing] {{/stl 7}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż IIa, D. u, blm {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} zastąpienie w filmie dźwiękowym jednego języka innym : {{/stl 7}}{{stl 10}}Film z dubbingiem. <ang.> {{/stl 10}} …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • Dubbing —    Ever since the arrival of sound, Italians have watched (or rather heard) all foreign language films in their own language. The practice of dubbing foreign films, now not only accepted but generally demanded by Italian audiences themselves, was …   Historical dictionary of Italian cinema

  • dubbing — dubbing1 /dub ing/, n. 1. the conferring of knighthood; accolade. 2. Angling. the material used for the body of an artificial fly. 3. dubbin. [1250 1300; ME; see DUB1, ING1] dubbing2 /dub ing/, n. the act or process of furnishing a film or tape… …   Universalium

  • Dubbing — Dub|bing 〈[dʌ̣b ] n.; od. s; unz.; Popmusik〉 das Spielen von Popmusik in der Stilrichtung des Dub (bes. im Reggae) * * * Dub|bing [ dabɪŋ ], das; s, s [engl. dubbing, zu: to dub = synchronisieren] (Technik): das Überspielen, Kopieren von Video od …   Universal-Lexikon

  • dubbing — Daubing Daub ing, n. 1. The act of one who daubs; that which is daubed. [1913 Webster] 2. A rough coat of mortar put upon a wall to give it the appearance of stone; rough cast. [1913 Webster] 3. In currying, a mixture of fish oil and tallow… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Dubbing — Dub Dub (d[u^]b), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Dubbed} (d[u^]bd); p. pr. & vb. n. {Dubbing}.] [AS. dubban to strike, beat ( dubbade his sunu . . . to r[=i]dere. AS. Chron. an. 1086); akin to Icel. dubba; cf. OF. adouber (prob. fr. Icel.) a chevalier,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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